Posted on

API Co-Founder Saul Walker Receives Technical GRAMMY

API Co-Founder Saul Walker Receives Technical GRAMMY

On Saturday, May 11th, API Co-Founder Saul Walker (1969-2016) was honored with the Recording AcademyTMTechnical GRAMMY® Award for his life-long achievements in the music industry as an exceptional designer, engineer, teacher, and mentor. In attendance at the Hollywood Dolby Theatre ceremony were API President Larry Droppa and Mr. Walker’s family, including his daughter Yren Berry who accepted the award on his behalf.

Although Mr. Walker founded API 50 years ago in 1969, his designs remain the backbone of API and continue to influence the music industry. API could not be more honored to continue his legacy 50 years later. API would like to thank the Recording AcademyTM and the GRAMMY®Awards for recognizing Saul Walker’s influence and accomplishments within the music industry.

Posted on

API 2448 Console Available for Demo at Wes Lachot’s Overdub Lane Recording Studio

API 2448 Console Available for Demo at Wes Lachot’s Overdub Lane Recording Studio

JESSUP, MD: Renowned studio designer Wes Lachot has commissioned a custom 32-channel API 2448 console, now available for demo, at his Overdub Lane Recording studio facility in Durham, North Carolina.

In operation since 1983, Overdub Lane Recording has hosted countless sessions for artists such as Krist Novoselic (Nirvana), Meat Puppets, Tift Merritt, Alejandro Escovedo, The Mountain Goats, John McLaughlin, and Superchunk among many others. Lachot worked as an Engineer/Producer at Overdub throughout the 80s and 90s before forming his extremely successful studio design and acoustic consulting firm Wes Lachot Design Group.

Lachot previously installed a 48-channel API 1608 console in Overdub’s control room, which he expanded from its original 16 channels over time, and with the addition of the 2448, he firmly stands by the API sound.

“We’ve installed many big name consoles in studios over the years,” says Lachot. “But I’ve always thought that the APIs sounded the best.”

For more on Overdub Lane, including contact information, please visit


Established 50 years ago, Automated Processes Inc. is the world leader in analog recording gear, and features the Vision, Legacy AXS, 2448, 1608-II, and THE BOX recording consoles, as well as its legendary line of analog signal processing equipment.

Posted on

Audient ASP4816: “The best of both analogue and digital” for Emmanuel College

Audient ASP4816: “The best of both analogue and digital” for Emmanuel College

An ASP4816 console has been installed in a new performing arts centre at Emmanuel College in Victoria, Australia. “I wanted to bring the best of both analogue and digital to our wonderful new space,” explains tutor and studio technician, Peter Sassmanshausen, who specified the desk after six months’ in-depth research.

“The Audient ASP4816 is a beautiful console with a small footprint and a massive sound”

“The Audient ASP4816 is a beautiful console with a small footprint and a massive sound,” he says. “It was by far the stand-out console even amongst more expensive models, nothing seemed close to providing the heart and soul this desk has. The preamps were raved about – these I can vouch for 100%. They contain a warmth and are yet transparent.

Audient ASP4816 in Emmanuel College’s new recording studio


“The complexity of routing, the in-line architecture and the EQs are laid out so well and in such a user-friendly manner, I knew the students would immediately adapt to its intuitive and creative nature.” Which – although it is still early days – they certainly seem to have. Peter recalls their initial reaction to the new studio setup: “They were amazed to find this wonderful addition to what is already a great facility. It’s still all very new for them, but I do feel they are grasping the concepts of routing, gain staging and EQ much quicker on the inline console rather than ‘in the box’.

“I’m very privileged to be able to use and teach with such an iconic and outstanding console”

“It has always been my goal to get an analogue console in front of the students and somehow bridge the gap between the practicality of analogue and the sheer capabilities of the digital realm,” he says and has managed that with aplomb. Integrating the Audient desk with the Slate Raven MTI2, which he describes as “a nice, modern twist”, it all fits neatly into a modified Argosy 90 series workstation.

Emmanuel College’s new performing arts centre: The STAGE

As well as being integral to the music production course – all the students will be using the desk for assessments over the course of the year – the studio has already been used to record voiceovers for film and video publications for the college. Peter describes this as “an exciting process for both the students involved in performing the voiceovers and for those helping to record them.”

ASP4816: “I knew the students would immediately adapt to its intuitive and creative nature”

The brand new performing arts centre, The STAGE (Student Theatre for Arts and Growth at Emmanuel) opened in November 2018 and comprises a 250-seat theatre with tiered seating, band rehearsal areas, studios for individual tuition, a dance studio, a large multi-purpose classroom as well as the professional standard recording studio. “Since the opening of The STAGE we have had increased enrolments to study VCE VET Cert III in both Performance and Production,” says Peter who also tells us that the College is training several technicians to cater for outside bookings. “We are more than happy with the interest and outcome.”

The STAGE – opening ceremony

He concludes, “I’m very privileged to be able to use and teach with such an iconic and outstanding console and even more excited to continue discovering everything the ASP4816 has to offer.”  Audient wishes him and Emmanuel College every success in the future.

Posted on

The Neuro Mobile App is Better than Ever

The Neuro Mobile App is Better than Ever

Check Out the New Look & Feel

Rejoice, the unofficial start of Summer 2019 has arrived – Happy Memorial Day Weekend, everybody! We are very excited to announce that we are kicking this Summer off right with a completely updated version of the Neuro Mobile App. In keeping with our commitment to create the best possible user experience, we have completely revised the App’s look and feel. The updated Neuro App features a more intuitive control interface, in-depth pedal information pages, enhanced preset search capabilities, profile following, and more. If you don’t already have the Neuro Mobile App you can check it out for free at the App Store and Google Play – just search “Source Audio Neuro.”

And let us know what you think of the updates – even the criticisms. We are always looking for ways to make our gear more awesome.


The Latest On the C4 Synth Project

The C4 Synth – our Eurorack modular synthesizer in a box – continues to edge closer and closer to completion. We just posted some fresh images of the Neuro Desktop’s C4 editing panel as well as a block diagram – they will give you some quick insight to the massive tonal possibilities beneath the hood of this pedal. Some of the cool features in the C4 Synth include four parallel Voices with a choice of three types of synth oscillator wave shapes, a synchronized pair of programmable 16 step sequencers, and over 20 modulating filters. The C4 is our most ambitious pedal to date and we cannot wait to hear the sounds you create with it.


Josh Scott of JHS Pedals Looks At the Ventris Dual Reverb in His “Extraordinary Reverbs” Vlog

If you’re anything like us, you look forward to Thursday because of (A.) its close proximity to the weekend and (B.) the inevitable release of another edition of the JHS Vlog. We had the great pleasure of meeting Josh Scott – the brilliant mastermind behind JHS pedals – at Winter NAMM 2019. After getting to know each other and expressing some mutual admiration we agreed to engage in a bit of pedal swapping. We shipped out a few Source Audio pedals and in about a week we received Josh’s Bonsai Drive (9 Tube Screamers in one box!) and the JHS Whitey Tighty and Pulp n’ Peel Compressors – killer, killer pedals.

And low and behold, a couple of weeks ago the Ventris Dual Reverb showed up in JHS’s Extraordinary Reverbs Vlog – you gotta love that. In the video Josh pulls some really great sounds from some really great reverb pedals, including a look at the Ventris’ Offspring engine. Enjoy!


Posted on

Novation’s flagship two-part 16-voice 61-key polyphonic synthesiser

Novation’s flagship two-part 16-voice 61-key polyphonic synthesiser

Summit’s digital New Oxford Oscillators offer subtractive, FM and wavetable synthesis, and feed into genuine analogue dual filters, distortion and VCAs. The multitimbral engine enables merging and combining of two complete and independent patches, while up to 16 simultaneous voices deliver enough harmonic depth for even the richest of pads.

The best sounding synthesiser Novation has ever made

Summit doubles the power of Peak’s digital New Oxford Oscillators up to 16 voices and two parts, and adds a wealth of new features and a premium-quality five-octave keyboard. A synth much greater than the sum of its parts, it gives the serious producer or performer everything they need to design and play stunning basses, leads, arps, pads, effects and beyond.

Totally tactile sound design

Summit takes Peak’s architecture and workflow to new heights, with a swathe of extra front panel controls for hands-on wrangling of FM, effects, LFOs and more; dual filters with six LP/HP/BP combinations; audio input for processing external sources with the onboard effects; and auxiliary audio outputs.

Analogue where it matters

The true stereo analogue signal path comprises dual analogue multimode filters, analogue VCAs and three stages of analogue distortion – pre- and post-filter, and post-VCA. With roots in the legendary OSCar, via Bass Station II, Summit’s analogue credentials are truly impressive.

Two Peaks in one synth – and then some

Two Peaks in one synth – and then some

The 16-voice, multitimbral engine combines two simultaneous patches. Split or stack them for keyboard-divided or layered sounds, or switch the entire synth between two separate and independently controlled setups, perhaps using one as an effects processor for an external input source.

Also, Summit can use all your Peak patches

Our best keyboard ever

Five-octave, semi-weighted, velocity-sensitive keyboard with aftertouch – the same premium-quality keybed as introduced with our SL MkIII controller keyboard.

New Oxford educated

Digital New Oxford Oscillators are capable of subtractive, FM and wavetable synthesis. Waveforms are generated directly on the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip, using 24MHz bitstream processing; and adjustable drift and divergence emulate the inherent and often desirable instability of analogue circuits.

True analogue filters and distortion

The New Oxford Oscillators output to true analogue filters, with origins in the classic OSCar synth, and three stages of analogue distortion give you ample saturation options.

Dual filters

Summit’s dual filter is switchable between six paired combinations of low-pass, high-pass and band-pass modes at 12dB/octave, or any single mode at 24dB/octave, for a broad range of sonic possibilities.

Hands-on sound design

Packed with modulation sources for deep sound design – LFOs, envelopes, Animate buttons and more. Extended controls see

FM parameters, envelope loop switches and LFOs 3/4 moved from Peak’s menu system to the front panel, for easy programming and tweaking.

Audio in and auxiliary audio out

Hook up external instruments for processing with Summit’s onboard effects, while using it as a synth at the same time.

Powerful effects

Onboard reverb, chorus and delay effects are hosted on the FPGA. They’re also controlled directly from the front panel, and available as modulation targets in the dedicated FX Mod Matrix.

Tech Specs

 Product Hardware Specifications

Synth Engine

  • 16 note polyphony (dependent on voices used per note)
  • 2-part-timbral
  • Layered, Split, Dual Bi-Timbral Modes
  • 5 Voice Modes – Mono, MonoLG, Mono2, Poly, Poly2

Per Voice

  • 3 oscillators
  • 1 noise generator with HP filter control
  • 1 ring modulator
  • 2 LFOs
  • 1 amp envelope and 2 mod envelopes (ADHSR + looping)
  • 1 filter

Waveforms Include

  • Sine, tri, sawtooth, square / pulse, plus 43 wavetables of 5 waveforms per row


  • 1 state variable OTA filter per voice
  • 12/24dB slope
  • Low-pass / band-pass / high-pass / dual filter (separation of each 12dB filters)
  • dual filter: LP > HP, LP > BP, HP > BP, LP + HP, LP + BP, HP + BP, LP + LP, BP + BP, and HP + HP
  • Pre-filter overdrive
  • Post-filter distortion


  • 16 modulation slots per patch
  • 2 sources per destination per slot

Mod Sources

  • Direct (depth)
  • Modulation wheel
  • Aftertouch (polyphonic and channel AT)
  • Expression pedal 1
  • Expression pedal 2
  • Keyboard velocity
  • LFO1 positive
  • LFO1 bi-polar
  • LFO2 positive
  • LFO2 bi-polar
  • Amp envelope
  • Mod envelope 1
  • Mod envelope 2
  • Animate 1
  • Animate 2
  • CV mod input bi-polar
  • Bend Up
  • Bend Down

Mod Destinations

  • Oscillator 1-3 frequency, v-sync level, shape amount and level
  • Noise source level
  • Ring modulator output level
  • Overall synth output level
  • Filter drive, distortion, cut-off frequency and resonance
  • LFO 1 and 2 frequency
  • Amp env / mod env 1 / mod env 2 attack, decay and release
  • FM Osc 1 -> osc 2, osc 2 -> osc 3, osc 3 -> osc 1 and noise -> osc 1
  • Osc 3 -> filter cutoff frequency

Noise -> filter cutoff frequency


  • FX are per part
  • Analogue distortion
  • 3 chorus types
  • Delay with 16 types of delay sync, LP and HP damping, slew and stereo

FX Mod Matrix Source

  • Direct (depth)
  • Mod wheel
  • Aftertouch
  • Expression pedal 1
  • Expression/breath pedal 2
  • Velocity
  • Keyboard
  • LFO 1 +/-
  • LFO 2 +/-
  • LFO 3 +/-
  • LFO 4 +/-
  • Amp envelope
  • Mod envelope 1 & 2
  • Animate 1 & 2
  • CV +/-
  • Bendwheel +/-
  • Bend up
  • Bend down

FX Mod Matrix Destinations

  • Distortion level
  • Chorus level
  • Chorus rate
  • Chorus depth
  • Chorus feedback
  • Delay level
  • Delay time
  • Delay feedback
  • Reverb level
  • Reverb time
  • Reverb low pass
  • Reverb high pass


  • FM controls on front panel
  • Global LFO 3 & 4
  • Arpeggiator with key latch – 33 patterns
  • Patch storage – up to 512 on hardware (ships with 256 factory patches)
  • All knobs (excl. volume), sliders and most buttons transmit and receive MIDI cc commands for external control and mapping
  • Microtuning with Scala table import and table tuning creation
  • Manual mode
  • Multi pot mode: Relative, Pot pick-up, Snap

Product Hardware Specifications

  • 50 control knobs

  • 8 45mm sliders
  • 1 volume knob
  • 1 data encoder knob
  • Rubberised knob caps with spun metal discs
  • 55 function buttons
  • 2 Animate buttons plus hold button
  • OLED display
  • Kensington Lock
  • Power switch
  • IEC power supply connector
  • USB socket for system (MIDI comms only, no bus power)
  • MIDI In / Out / Thru
  • 2 1/4″ jack sockets for continuous or switched pedals
  • 1 3.5mm jack socket for CV in
  • 2 1/4″ jack sockets for left and right outputs
  • 2 1/4″ jack sockets for left and right auxiliary outputs
  • 2 1/4″ jack sockets for left and right inputs
  • 1/4″ jack socket for headphone output
  • Metal chassis with American walnut wooden end cheeks

Metal magnetic inset end pieces

 Software Compatibility

  • Ableton Live Lite is included
  • Summit is a USB-MIDI class compliant device

 Power Requirements

  • Maximum power consumption 1A
Posted on

Introducing the Moog Matriarch

Introducing the Moog Matriarch

Moog Matriarch is a patchable 4-note paraphonic analog synthesizer with a built-in Sequencer, Arpeggiator, stereo Ladder Filters, and stereo Analog Delay. Create rich evolving chord patterns immediately with “no patching required”, then tap into an abundance of inspiring textures, new sounds, and an endless supply of happy accidents through Matriarch’s 90 modular patch points. Based on the vintage circuitry of classic Moog synthesizer modules, Matriarch is a catalyst for creative ideas and a medium for multidimensional expression.

● Mono, duo, and 4-note paraphonic playability
● Stereo analog delay w/ up to 700ms of MIDI sync-able stereo or ping/pong style repeats
● 256 step sequencer w/ up to 4 notes per step and 12 stored patterns. (Can be decoupled from Matriarch to independently sequence external gear)
● Arpeggiator with selectable modes (Order, Forward/Backward, Random)
● Semi-modular analog synthesizer – no patching required
● 90 modular patch points for endless exploration
● Expressive 49-note Fatar keyboard w/ patchable velocity and aftertouch
● 4 analog oscillators w/ selectable waveshape and hard sync per-oscillator
● Full-range analog LFO with 6 selectable waveshapes
● Dual analog filters with parallel (HP/LP), stereo (LP/LP), and series (HP/LP) modes available
● Dual analog ADSR envelopes
● Dual analog VCAs
● 3x bipolar voltage controlled attenuators with ring mod capability
● 2×4 parallel wired unbuffered mults
● Additional simple analog LFO useful for adding modulation to delay, filters and VCAs
● 1/4“ external audio input for processing guitars, drum machines, and more through Matriarch’s analog circuits
● Stereo ¼” and 3.5mm Eurorack level audio outputs

Posted on

Slate Media Technology – Introducing Raven 3.6

Slate Media Technology – Introducing Raven 3.6

You asked. We listened. Our most advanced RAVEN software ever is now YOURS!


  • Dashboard: access Calibrate, Configure, Gestures, Tutorials and Manuals in one easy-to-find place
  • Auto Display Detection: keep iMac and large 4k studio monitors as your main display while running RAVEN mixers and toolbars on another display
  • Universal Gestures: detects DAW-specific gesture profiles and translates user key commands automatically
  • Extended DAW Support: now supporting Cubase 10, Pro Tools 2019, DP 10 and more, including new layout batch commands for macOS and Windows
  • Pro Tools Mixing Layout: get all of Steven’s favorite batch commands in one layout for single and dual RAVEN on macOS and Window

Login & Update Now

Posted on

Kazbar Systems Designs and Builds a 5 Room Studio Complex for Nicholas Lloyd-Webber

Kazbar Systems Designs and Builds a 5 Room Studio Complex for Nicholas Lloyd-Webber

“Kazbar and their whole team have put together a wonderful studio.
It’s incredibly flexible whether it be for tracking, mixing or working to picture in all of the rooms at once or independently. Not only that it has a wonderful sound and their care, precision and unrivalled advice is reflected in every aspect.”

– Nick Lloyd Webber –

Kazbar systems have recently completed the bespoke design and construction of a new multi-room recording facility for Nicholas Lloyd-Webber.

Nicholas has been a client of Kazbar Systems’ since our involvement in his previous Studio at the Palace Theatre on Shaftsbury Avenue. Due to the ongoing renovation of the Palace Theatre, Nicholas required a new long-term solution.

Structural Challenges

The host structure for the Studios is located on basement level with two adjoining smaller rooms and meeting room. The structure presented a number of challenges, including; close proximity to domestic and office accommodation, a large steel smoke duct and a number of water and sewerage pipes.

Photo 1: Control Room, Photo 2 Control Room looking towards Recording Room 1, Photo 3 Recording Room 1 looking towards Rooms 2 & 3 and Photo 4 Within Recording Room 2 looking towards Room 3.

The Design Brief

The fundamental requirement of the project was to provide the best use of available space whilst maintaining a high level of sound isolation and acoustic accuracy.

To compensate for the lack of natural daylight, Kazbar provided the Client with a light and relaxed aesthetic finish, creating a productive environment facilitating longer sessions.

Design Development

Kazbar Systems’ in-house design team provided a number of layout schemes for review by the client. The final design provided an isolation booth within the Control Room and two smaller multi functional isolation booths that can be used as additional Live Rooms or as writing and production studios. The final design also integrated fire protection, access control and security systems.

Equipment Specification

Nicholas decided upon the Audient ASP8024 HE Console with the DLC option for enhanced DAW control, having used the previous model in the Palace Studio for some time. Kazbar Systems recommended the Genelec 1238A Smart Active Monitor speakers, which offer incredibly neutral monitoring at high sound pressure levels. The Control Room was specifically designed around the console and monitors to provide optimal symmetry and sonic accuracy.

Early construction work of the Control Room & Recording Room 1


The cabling specification for the Studios included analogue, digital, video and data ties to each area, including USB, CAT6 and HDMI. This allows Nicholas to send video to any area within the complex and to use each area independently or simultaneously for larger and more demanding sessions.

Custom connection panels were designed and installed into the Control Room and Isolation booths. Booth 2 and 3 interconnect so they can function as an additional independent self contained Control Room and Isolation Booth.

Connection plates for surround speakers were also installed into the Control Room.

Construction and Project Management

Dave Eccleston, Kazbar Systems Technical and Project Manager managed all aspects of the day today construction and scheduling of the project, liaising with the Client, the Designer, the Kazbar build team and Client direct contractors to ensure the project ran smoothly and was delivered within budget.

Off-Site Equipment Setup and Configuration

Offsite at Kazbar HQ, Technical Assistant Oda Holm Strand installed and soak tested the Mac Pro host computer including; Avid Pro Tools Ultimate, Waves Diamond Bundle, Sonnox Elite Bundle, Native Instruments Komplete and Arturia V Collection 6. Four LCDs Displays were also supplied and installed: one Samsung 50” Main Display, two Samsung 30” Displays and one Samsung 19” Display which was VESA Mounted to the Audient ASP8024 Console.

Further recording hardware installed and supplied by Kazbar Systems included Focal Trio Active Studio Speakers, two Universal Audio Apollo 16 MKII Thunderbolt Interfaces, a Kahayan 12K72 Dual Mic Preamp, a TK Audio BC1 Stereo Compressor, two Neumann U87 Studio Set Microphones, two Latchlake Mic King 1100 Heavy Duty Microphone Stands and various mic stands and music stands. To add a ‘close mic’ recording sound, we also supplied two Kaotica Eyeball Microphone Shields.

Photo 1 Control Room Rear Wall inc Absorbers, Photo 2 Control Room Rear Wall to Room1, Photo 3 Room 1 inc Window to Control Room and Photo 3 Room 2 Window to Room 3

On-site Installation and Commissioning

Once the Studio construction had been completed, the Kazbar team then began the onsite installation of the equipment and cabling. This included the commissioning of the Audient console, the installation of the soffit-mounted Genelec monitors, the DAW system, and outboard equipment and patchbays.

Kazbar supplied two custom-built dual 24U Racks for the Control Room, which were mounted on top of each other. For Booth 2 we installed a Zaor MIZA 61 Studio Workstation, and for Booth 3, a Zaor MIZA Junior Work surface. Nicholas also brought the equipment from his previous studio which includes two Summit TLA 100 Limiters, a Summit EQP-200B Stereo EQ, a Lexicon PCM70, 90 & 480L Digital Reverbs and a Focusrite Red 1 4 Channel Mic Preamp, all of which were included in the patchbay and cabling design.

Photo 1 Control Room, Photo 2 Genelec 1238 & Focal Trio Active Speakers and Photo 3 Recording Room 1 into Control Room

Testing and Results

Sound transmission tests were conducted between the Control Room and Isolation Booths and the entire Studio complex and residential areas. All specified isolation values were either met or exceeded by Kazbar Systems.

Genelec product specialist Andy Bensley optimized the performance of the Genelec monitors using the proprietary Smart Active Monitor system and found the Control Room to have a particularly flat response.

Photo 1 Recording Room 2, Photo 2 Recording Room 3, Photo 4 Kactica Eyeball on Neumann U87 and Photo 3 Recording Room 1 Audio Connection Panel

Training and Ongoing Support

Dave Eccleston has returned to the Studio to provide one to one training to the in-house engineering team, along with Nicholas Lloyd-Webber, to ensure that the commercial operation of the Studio runs efficiently and productively.

Posted on

Ear Trumpet Labs – Old Dominion Hits the Road with ETL Edwina

Ear Trumpet Labs – Old Dominion Hits the Road with ETL Edwina

Nashville, TN (April 10, 2019)—A highlight on country act Old Dominion’s current arena tour has been the performance of a new song, “One Man Band,” with the moment underlined by the group using an Edwina vocal microphone from boutique mic manufacturer Ear Trumpet Labs.

The large-diaphragm condenser Edwina model was selected for the quieter moment in an otherwise high-energy set, as lead vocalist Matthew Ramsey is joined by lead guitarist Brad Tursi to share the Edwina microphone for vocal harmonies.


FOH engineer Ian Zorbaugh noted, “The show designer came to me looking for a ‘vibey’ microphone for two of our vocalists to sing into together. I wanted to give the designer a look he liked, while also achieving a sound quality that I was happy with. I’d heard great things about the sonics of all of the Ear Trumpet products, and obviously, they have a very distinctive vibe. The Edwina sounds great; it has a very detailed, open sound while also being very stable. We use it at the end of a 40-foot thrust, well in front of the PA, so the stability was another key element in making this particular moment in our show a success.”

Lead singer Matthew Ramsey notes, “Playing a new song in our set comes with the risk of losing the full attention of our audience because they aren’t familiar with it. On top of that, it’s somewhat of a ballad. We wanted to make sure this song had its moment [so] when the light hits that microphone at the end of the stage, the crowd instantly knows something special is about to happen, Not only is it great sonically for catching the mix of Brad Tursi’s vocal and mine together, it just looks cool, too.”

Ear Trumpet Labs •

Posted on

Black Lion Audio presents the NEW Bluey

Black Lion Audio presents the NEW Bluey

Experienced recording engineers are all familiar with the concept of “happy accidents” — those once-in-a-blue-moon moments that ignite spontaneous magic in your recordings. You can’t plan them — they’re organic, comprised of sheer randomness or even bone-headed mistakes. It’s the guitarist getting caught in the wrong key (“modal jazz!”); the wrong track patched into the sidechain (“Grammy-winning engineering!”); singers riffing when they thought it was just a run-through (“pure poetic brilliance!”). The same audio gods sometimes smile down upon a piece of vintage gear. Through decades of repair and maintenance, some units seem to improve with time.